Kotlety (Croquettes/Patties/Mini-Meatloaves/Etc.)

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This is a multiple-recipe post.  Scroll down for:
  • Classic Meat Kotlety
  • Pozharskie Kotlety
  • Farmer Style Pork Kotlety; and
  • Steamed Veal Cutlety With Mushroom Bechamel
The Russian word “kotlety” (singular: kotleta) does not have a true equivalent in English because this kind of dish (and its many, many variations) is not well-known in the English speaking world. There are things that are similar — rissoles, Hamburg steak, Salisbury steak, meatloaf — but these are generally obscure.  People sometimes translate “kotlety” as “patties”, but it’s sort of like translating “ravioli” as “dumplings” — broadly accurate, but does not really give you a precise idea of what we are talking about.  
The word “kotleta” comes from the French term côtelette de porc — pork chop — and originally had the same meaning.  The English word “cutlet” has the same origin.  Over the centuries, however, the French côtelette evolved in parts of Europe and Central Asia to mean something very different.  The  “cutlet” as it appears today in Russian, Ukrainian and certain Central Asian cuisines is basically a portion-sized mini-meatloaf, an oblong-shaped croquette made from ground meat (though fish and vegetarian varieties exist) mixed with mashed bread, or (less commonly) potato or cereals, and pan-friend or oven-roasted.  Onions are usually added as well, and raw egg is used as a binding agent.  Kotlety may or may not be breaded.  They are typically not stewed in any kind of gravy, and are eaten with mustard, ketsup or hot sauce (though one of the recipes below calls for a mushroom gravy).*  I will broadly refer to them as “meat croquettes“.
*And, because language evolution is always uneven, the Russian term “otbivnaya kotleta” (“beaten cutlet”) refers to a true cutlet or pork chop that has been tenderized — i.e. “beaten” — before being cooked.
Classic Meat Coquettes
1 lb unseasoned meatloaf mix (beef, pork and veal)
1/2 lb ground pork
1/3 baguette loaf, sliced, crusts removed
1 cup whole milk
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 medium onion, finely minced
2 tbsp butter
vegetable oil with a high smoking point, such as sunflower or coconut
salt and pepper to taste
Heavy, non-stick, oven-proof dish or skillet (cast iron skillet will work best)
1 large non-stick skillet for sauteeing the onions and frying the kotlety
meat grinder or food processor
2 large bowls
1.  Arrange baguette slices on the bottom of a shallow dish and pour milk over them.  Allow to soak for about 25 minutes, turning over half way through.
2.  Melt the butter in a skillet and sautee the onions until soft and golden, about 20 minutes.  Take off heat and allow to cool.
3.  Squeeze as much milk as possible from the soaked bread.  Discard the milk.  Mash the soaked bread by putting it through a meat grinder or a food processor.
4.  Combine the meat loaf mix, the additional pork, sauteed onions, mashed bread and egg in a large mixing bowl, season with salt and generous amounts of freshly ground black pepper, and mix thoroughly.  Taste for seasonings by cooking a small portion of the mix in a microwave oven.  Cover and chill in the refrigerator for at least 1 hour.
5.  Preheat the oven to 350F.  Lightly oil an oven-proof dish or skillet, preheat it and keep warm.
6.  Add enough vegetable oil to the frying skillet until it’s about 1/4 inch deep.  Preheat it until the oil is rippling slightly, but not smoking.
7.  Take the meat mix out of the refrigerator, and turn  and mix it for a few seconds. Fill another bowl with tepid water and keep it next to the meat container.
8.  Dip your hands into the bowl of water and pat lightly with a towel (Hint: this is an excellent trick for preventing ground meat from sticking to your fingers.)  Break off a piece of meat about the size of a baseball and roll it between your palms for a few seconds, until it becomes a smooth ball.  Then flatten it and shape the sides until the croquette is oblong about about 1 to 1 1/2 inch thick, with a slight dip in the middle (the slight dip will prevent the patty from contracting into a meatball shape as it cooks).  Continue making the patties, periodically dipping your hands into the water bowl and patting them, to prevent sticking.
9.  Fry the croquettes on both sides on medium-high heat until a crust forms, about 3 minutes per side.  (The croquettes need not be cooked all the way through.)
10.  Transfer the fried croquettes to the oven-proof dish or skillet, cover losely with aluminum foil and roast in the oven for about 30 minutes.
11.  Let stand, covered, for 10-15 minutes before serving.

Chicken Croquettes Pozharsky (Pozharskie Kotlety)
Sometimes, a chef just gets it right — creating a dish so delightful, so elegant, it instantly becomes a classic.  To the diner, a Croquette Pozharsky looks deceptively simple — it’s just a chicken patty — but it is the best chicken patty you will ever have, with a delicate, complex buttery flavor that is guaranteed to make it a favorite.  Pozharsky is one of the haute classics of the Russian cuisine, the dignified, regal predecessor to the boorish, tourist-oriented monstrosity that is “chicken Kiev”.  (I have only one thing to say about Chicken Kiev — well, apart from what I already have: I never make it and neither should you.)
I like stories about the origins of beloved dishes, even if they are apocryphal.  Historic or not, they are an indelible part of folklore.  About Pozharsky’s croquettes, a couple of stories are told, though both versions agree that “Pozharsky” is the name of the inventor.  According to one story, the dish was invented at an inn owned by the Pozharsky family, plying its business in a small provincial town straddling the stage road between Moscow and St. Petersburg.  The croquettes were originally made of veal, but the chef eventually switched to chicken due to better flavor.  It is these croquettes that are believed to have been mentioned favorably in a private letter by none other than Alexander Pushkin himself.  (Wrote the poet in 1826, in verse, because he could rhyme and keep meter as easily as you and I can breathe, and also was a total showoff: “If you  have a chance, dine at Pozharsky’s in Torzhok, be sure to order their fried kotlety, and leave delighted.”  Sorry, I can translate, but not in verse.)

Torzhok, the ostensible birthplace of Pozharsky’s croquettes.  The building that housed the famous tavern (which was still in operation in the 1910’s, almost a century after Pushkin mentioned it in his letter to a friend) is still extant and was extensively restored in 2012.

One day, a royal party stopped at the inn to have lunch ,and the tsar was so impressed with the dish, that he had the inn’s chef disclose his secret, so that the dish could be included in the royal palace menu.
According to another story, the dish was invented in a tavern in Kiev owned by a widow with the last name Pozharsky.  Although the tavern catered to a middling clientele, the popularity of the dish attracted the attention of upscale chefs from up north, who prevailed on Widow Pozharsky to disclose her secret, in exchange for attaching her name to the dish.
Either one of those stories could have a grain of truth, and perhaps both supply some historical details.  For whatever it’s worth, the unabashed addition of pure fat involved in this dish leads me to believe that it’s probably Ukrainian in origin.
Bottom line: Pozhasky’s croquettes are incredibly delicious, so go ahead and make them.  I promise you, you won’t regret the work.
The “secret” to Croquette Pozharskys’ incredible flavor and texture is actually two things.
First, the butter.  The recipe involves the addition of finely shredded frozen butter to chilled ground chicken and then keeping the mixture well-chilled up until the time the patties hit the skillet.  The tiny butter shavings melt during cooking, evenly basting the meat from the inside.  Rather than do my traditional Q&A at the end, I’ll just answer the question you are probably asking right now: adding melted butter and mixing it into the chicken sounds like it might make sense, but for reasons that are beyond my scientific ken, it doesn’t work.  You don’t get the right texture or flavor.  The only way to get it right is to add frozen shredded butter.
Second, the crumbs.  The traditional recipe calls for toasted crumbs made from French bread, and states rather vaguely that they should be “large”.  How large is large?  There is a tremendous difference of opinion on that point.  A lot of people make their “crumbs” as big as stuffing pieces or croutons, so that a finished croquette looks like a hedgehog.  I personally don’t like them that big.  I think you get a better result if you make your crumbs larger than ordinary store breadcrumbs, but still fine enough that they fuse with the meat to form a crust during cooking.  That said, yes, you are making your own crumbs for this one.  You can make them a day ahead though.
One more thing.  You will need regular butter for the croquette mix and clarified butter for frying.  In case you are not sure what clarified butter is: ordinary butter consists of butterfat and milk solids (and some water).  If you melt butter in a skillet, you will see it separate into an oil-like substance and tiny white flakes floating at the top.  The flakes are the milk solids.  Using butter for frying is fine if it’s something that cooks very fast, like eggs; but it does not work for searing meat at high heat, because the milk solids become scorched, adding black specks and burned flavor.  But if you scoop out the milk solids and just leave the butterfat, that’s perfect for high-temperature cooking.  Clarified butter sears meat evenly and cleanly while imparting that delicious butter flavor. When cooled, clarified butter will solidify, but will be a darker yellow than ordinary butter; homemade clarified butter also tends to be grainy when chilled.  Making clarified butter by yourself is a labor-intensive and messy undertaking, so you should just buy some. Be careful doing so, however, and be sure to read the ingredient list.  Clarified butter is expensive (the process generates a lot of waste), and many dairy manufacturers will cut it with vegetable spread, hydrogenated oil and other inferior additives.  That’s the reason why I never buy Russian clarified butter.  You need the real thing — 100% butterfat.  Your best bet for finding real clarified butter at a reasonable price is unseasoned cow ghee that you can find at Indian markets.  
2 French-style baguettes, crusts sliced off and reserved for another use
2 lbs ground chicken dark meat
1 medium onion, minced
1/8 lb (1/2 stick) salted butter, frozen overnight
1/4 lb clarified butter (or cow ghee)
1 large egg, lightly beaten
1 tsp ground white pepper
1 cup half-and-half
salt to taste
fine shredder, placed in the freezer overnight
1 large pre-chilled bowl
heavy non-stick oven-proof pan or skillet
chilled serving spoon or spatula (if using)
Stage I:  The Breadcrumbs
1.  Preheat the oven to 325 F.
2.  Set aside 1/2 of one baguette.
3.  Cut the remaining 1 1/2 baguette into cubes a bit smaller than salad croutons (about 1 cm).
4.  Arrange the bread cubes in a single layer on an oven sheet and toast in the oven until hard and crunchy, but not darkened, about 10-15 minutes.  Cool, uncovered, to room temperature.
5.  Pound the croutons in a bowl with a pestle, or seal them in a plastic bag and crush with a rolling pin, until you have bread crumbs somewhat chunkier than ordinary store breadcrumbs, but fine enough to be “crumbs”.  Homemade breadcrumbs will be of uneven size.  Don’t crush them to the point of pulverizing them in order to get something uniform, you need the crumbs to be fairly large.
6.  Transfer to a completely dry container and store in a dark, cool place.
Stage II: Prepare the chicken mix.
1.  Melt 1 tbsp of clarified butter in a skillet, add the onion and sauté until soft, golden and just beginning to crisp, about 30 minutes.  Take off heat, drain on paper towels and let cool.
2.  Slice the remaining baguette and soak in half-and-half for 30 minutes.  Squeeze out the liquid and mash the bread until smooth or put it through a meat grinder.
2.  In a pre-chilled bowl, combine chicken, sautéed onion, egg, white pepper and mashed bread.  Season with salt and mix thoroughly.  Test for salt by cooking a small amount in a microwave and tasting it.  Chill in the refrigerator for 2 hours.
3.  Wrap one end of a frozen butter stick in a paper towel.  Using a freezer-chilled shredder, quickly shred the butter over the meat.  Mix to combine using a chilled spoon or spatula.  (You can use your hands to mix, but if you do it that way, make sure to dip your hands in some ice beforehand, to prevent your body heat from softening or melting the butter.)
4.  Cover the mix and chill in the refrigerator for 1 hour.
Stage III: Prepare and Cook the Croquettes
1.  Preheat the oven to 350 F.
2.  Brush the oven-proof pan or skillet with clarified butter and place it in the oven.
3.  Add some breadcrumbs to a shallow bowl or platter.
4.  Melt a generous amount of clarified butter in a non-stick skillet.
5.  Rinse your hands with cold water.  Take the chicken mix out of the refrigerator and turn in the bowl a few times.
6.  Periodically rinsing your hands with cold water, shape oblong patties about the size of a hockey puck (but oblong) and roll them in the crumbs until fully coated.
7.  Sear the patties at medium-high heat until a golden-brown crust forms, about 3-4 minutes per side.  Make sure not to crowd the patties in the skillet.
8.  Transfer the seared patties to the oven pan or heavy skillet and roast another 30 minutes or so.  Cover the pan loosely with aluminum foil to prevent over-roasting.
Stage IV:  Serve.
1. Take the pan out of the oven, transfer the patties to a warmed platter, cover with foil and let stand for about 15 minutes before serving.
2.  Garnish with with parsley and halved cherry tomatoes.
3.  Serve with truffled mashed potatoes.


Farmer Style Pork Croquettes
“Farmer-style” (po krestjanski) dishes in Russian cuisine invariably involve cooking things in pork fat.  The more traditional version of this recipe calls for using salo — cured fatback; incorporating the cracklings left over from rendering the fat into the croquette mix, and frying the croquettes in the rendered salo fat.  That’s true farmer style for you!  It is, however, a bit too much for  modern sensibilities, given that most of us don’t burn 6000 calories a day doing 10 hours of back-breaking labor, and would like to live past the age of 45.  Accordingly, I replace salo with bacon and cook the croquettes in vegetable oil.  Shredded potato replaces mashed bread in this recipe.
N.B.:  Croquette mix works best when it’s chilled.  One option is to prepare the mix a day ahead and refrigerate it overnight.
2 lbs ground pork
1 lb Russian or Polish-style mild steamed bacon, finely chopped
1 large starchy potato, such as Idaho
1 medium onion, finely chopped
1 tbsp freshly ground black pepper
1/2 tsp fennel seed, toasted and ground
1 tbsp powdered marjoram
4 eggs
1/4 cup whole milk
1 cup all purpose flour + more if needed
1 cup unseasoned bread crumbs
minced chives
salt to taste
vegetable oil
1.  Boil the potato with skin on in lighly salted water until it can be easily pierced with a fork.  Remove from the pot, let cool, peel and finely shred.
2.  Warm the bacon in a skillet until it begins to render fat, then add the onion.  Saute over medium-low heat, stirring frequently, until most of the fat is rendered and the onion is a deep golden color, at 35 minutes.  Pour off excess fat and drain the bacon-onion mixture on paper towels.
3.  Combine ground pork, bacon, onion, shredded potato, 1 lightly beaten egg, fennel seed, marjoram and 1/2 tbsp ground black pepper.  Add a generous pinch of salt and mix to combine.  Taste the mixture for salt by cooking a teaspoonful in a microwave, adding more if necessary.  Cover or wrap the container and refrigerate for at least 2 hours.
4.  Preheat the oven to 350F.
5.  Whisk the remaining three eggs with the milk in a shallow bowl until smooth and slightly foamy.
6.  In a separate shallow bowl, season the flour with a pinch of salt and the remaining 1/2 tbsp ground black pepper.
7.  Pour the bread crumbs into a third bowl.
8.  Warm approximately 1/4 inch of vegetable oil in a heavy, non-stick skillet.
9.  Remove the croquette mix from the refrigerator and mix and turn for a few seconds.  Break off pieces about the size of baseballs and form oblong croquettes.  Dredge them in flour, dip in the egg mixture and roll in bread crumbs.  Fry in oil until golden, about 3 minutes per size.
10.  Arrange the pan-fried croquettes in a lightly oiled, non-stick roasting pan, cover loosely with aluminum foil and roast in the oven for about 40 minutes, flipping them over half way through.
11.  Remove the croquettes to a warmed serving dish, cover loosely with foil and let rest for about 10 minutes.
12.  Serve sprinkled with chives and bacon crumbles.


Steamed Veal Corquettes with Mushroom Bechamel
2 lbs ground veal
1/4 French baguette, crusts removed, cubed and soaked in whole milk
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 tsp ground sage
salt and pepper to taste
vegetable oil
1 lbs crimini mushrooms, rinsed and patted dry
1 cup dry sherry
1 1/2 cups heavy cream
1 tbsp butter
1 tbsp all-purpose flour
3-4 parsley stalks
a few lighly crushed black peppercorns
1/3 tsp ground white pepper
pinch of nutmeg
1 bayleaf
1.  Drain and squeeze the bread.  Mash it finely or grind in a meat grinder.
2.  Combine the veal, mashed bread, egg and seasonings.  Wrap the mixture and refrigerate for at least 2 hours.
3.  Prepare a deep skillet filled with simmering water and insert an unfolded steamer basket.  Brush lightly with oil.  Form oblong croquettes and steam, covered, for about 45 minutes.
4.  Pat the steamed croquettes dry and sear them in vegetable oil on both sides until a light crust forms, about 3-4 minutes per side.
5.  Separate the mushroom caps from the stems.  Set the caps aside.  Coarsly chop the stems.  Bring the sherry to a simmer and add the mushroom stems.  Boil until the wine has been reduced by about 2/3.  Add the cream, bring to a simmer, add a pinch of salt, parsley stalks, peppercorns and bayleaf and steep, covered, over a very low flame for about 1 hour.  Strain, discard the solids, and keep the liquid warm.
6.  Finely slice the mushroom caps.  Sautee in butter, stirring frequently, until the liquid drained from the mushrooms has completely evaporated, about 25 minutes. Sift flour over the mushrooms, and cook, stirring frequently, for an additional 20 minutes.  Slowly pour in the reduced wine and then the cream, while whisking vigorously.  Cover the sauce and let simmer over a low flame for 30 minutes.  If too thick, dilute with a bit more cream (do not use milk).  Finish with a pinch of nutmeg.
7.  Ladle the gravy over the croquettes before serving.


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20170225_182737Maslenitsa — i.e. Orthodox Fat Tuesday — is on February 28, and that means, it’s time to make blini, Russian sour crepes.

I am going to do something unorthodox (ha!) with this recipe.  All recipes are written in a sort of shorthand, and quantities given are always approximate. The right way to cook is to look for the right flavor, color and texture, and that means not necessarily fixating on precise proportions.  That is especially important with blini.  I’m sorry, I couldn’t tell you how much flour you need.  I just add flour gradually until I get the right consistency batter.  So, get yourself plenty of flour and prepare to go by sight and feel, rather than by quantity.  Also, the right environment is important for making blini, especially if you are making them with active yeast, so the recipe will devote some time to that.


The recipe for classic blini may look intimidating, but trust me, it’s less complicated than it looks.  You just have to remember two important things:

FIRST, everything (including the kitchen) must be at the right temperature — warm, but not too warm.  If you have experience working with yeast, you understand why that is.  If you’ve never worked with yeast —well — let’s just say, it’s a bunch of living organisms, and they are delicate.  Once activated, they like their environment warm, wet and full of starch (including table sugar — you always want to start them off with something easier to break down), and if they are happy, they do the fermentation process that makes the batter rise and the blini nice and spongy.  But if they are too cold, or it gets too warm, they die, and as with all living things, there is no reviving them.  So make sure to keep them warm, happy and not dead (until the batter hits the skillet).

SECOND, when you fry a single blini, it takes about 10 seconds per side to cook, after which it begins to burn.  Once cooked, a blin must be brushed with butter, or it will get dry and brittle.  That means, you have to work very quickly, and you have to have a system for frying blini while brushing and finishing those already fried.  No, you are not going to use a timer.  I will tell you later in the recipe how to time yourself without fumbling with an additional device, and how to make sure you finish one blin while simultaneously frying the next.

If you get those two things right — and I will explain in detail how to do that — bliny will be easy.


2 cups whole milk, warm

1 packet dry yeast (about 2 heaping teaspoons)

1 tbsp sugar

2 eggs at room temperature, beaten

1 tsp baking soda, neutralized with a few drops of vinegar

all purpose flour

generous pinch of salt

oil with a high smoking point, such as sunflower, safflower or a coconut blend

cubes of butter or margarine, kept chilled


Large bowl


10” non-stick pan, preferably with a metal or wooden handle, because the pan will get VERY hot and stay hot for a long time.

4-oz soup ladle

1 large platter

1 fork

1 spatula


  1. Warm the milk, but not to the point where it’s hot.  Remember — your fingers are actually relatively less sensitive to heat than you need to gauge the temperature here.  Warm up more milk than you need, and then test it by holding some in your mouth.  If it’s comfortingly warm, but you can hold it in your mouth without a burning sensation, it’s just right.
  2. Preheat the oven slightly, to about 80F, and certainly not more than 90F.  Turn off the heat and keep the oven closed.
  3. Make sure the ambient temperature in the kitchen is very warm, 75 or higher.
  4. Make sure the eggs are at room temperature (I know I’m repeating myself here, but it’s important to get the yeast to work right).
  5. Make sure the bowl is either warm or at ambient temperature — but not hot enough to cook the yeast.  Again, sorry for repeating myself, but I want to make sure nothing gets overlooked.
  6. Okay, now that everything is warm but not too warm, you are ready to start.


  1. Whisk together warm milk and sugar, sift in about 1-2 tbsp flour and whisk again until blended.  Add yeast.  Stir gently.
  2. Put the bowl into your slightly warm (but not actively heating!) oven, close the door and let stand 20 minutes.
  3. Take the bowl out of the oven — if the yeast are working properly, the mixture should have risen considerably.  It will sag back down once you start blending in all the other ingredients; don’t worry about, as long as you keep the temperature warm and constant, it will rise again.
  4. Whisk in eggs, a pinch of salt, and the baking soda neutralized with vinegar.  Don’t whisk too vigorously — just enough to blend.  Again, don’t worry about the level of the liquid falling.
  5. Begin sifting in flour 1 tbsp at a time, whisking gently between additions.  Continue adding flour until you get the right consistency.  You have the right consistency when the batter is like a smooth, thick sauce.  Scoop a ladle of it and pour back into the bowl.  Observe the texture.  If it’s falling in clumps, it’s too thick.  If it’s falling like a ribbon, it’s too thick.  If it’s falling like smooth gravy, forming a funnel in the bowl without droplets or splashing, then it’s just right.  If it splashes, the batter needs more flour.
  6. Once you get the batter right, put it in the oven again for about 5 minutes.
  7. Brush the skillet very lightly with oil, and heat over medium-high heat for a few minutes.  Remove the batter from the oven and whisk in 1 tbsp of oil.  Stick a fork into a chilled cube of butter. You are now ready to fry the blini.
  8. Fill the ladle to about 3/4 capacity and pour onto the heated skillet in a thin stream, while tilting the skillet with your other hand, making sure that the batter covers the surface of the skillet evenly.  Note:  the first blin never comes out right.  We even have a proverb in Russian — the first blin is always a clump — so if it looks more like a mishapen piece of protoplasm than something edible, don’t be discouraged.  It can take up to 3 bliny until the skillet is heated just right, and all the excess fat has been absorbed, before you start getting the right blini.
  9. Now, for the “system” I mentioned earlier.  Once you’ve added batter to the skillet (let’s call it Blin 1), and it’s distributed evenly all over its surface, it will take about 10 seconds before you have to flip it.  You know it’s time to flip it when the surface of the blin no longer looks runny. Flip it with a spatula and count to ten.  Remove the Blin 1 to the holding platter.  Add the next  3/4 ladle batter to the skillet and tilt it to distribute (Blin 2).  Start counting to ten. While counting to ten, quickly  and lightly brush Blin 1 with the butter cube, taking care to butter the edges.   You must finish buttering it within 10 seconds. Return the butter cube with its fork to its chilled dish, flip Blin 2 on the skillet, count to 10.  Remove Blin 2 from the skillet and place it on top of Blin 1.  Add more batter to the skillet and start counting  to ten (Blin 3).  While counting to ten, brush the surface of Blin 2 that’s on the platter with the butter cube.  Then flip Blin 3, count to ten.  Follow the same protocol: add batter to skillet — brush the previous blin with butter while counting to ten — flip the blin in the skillet — count to ten — remove the blin to the holding platter.  Once you get the hang of it, it’s almost instinctive.  Stack the blini in a column. Continue until you’ve used up all the batter.  You will not need to add  more oil to the skillet.

To serve:

Blini are served warm as a stack, with toppings such as sour cream, caviar, gravlax, mushroom gravy, etc served on the side.  For sweet bliny, the classic combination of toppings is sour cream and honey.

To eat, use a fork to pull up one side of a blin, and fold it in half, then fold it once more (so it’s a quarter) and transfer to an individual plate.  Heap with your preferred toppings.


Q: Why should I use butter cubes to butter blini after they are fried?  Why not just brush them with melted butter?

A: Because you will use too much butter.  Blini are spongy, which makes brushing them difficult.  They also absorb butter like, well, a sponge.  Brushing them with melted butter, as opposed to a chilled butter cube, makes them too greasy.


If you use buttermilk instead of milk, then add baking soda without neutralizing it with vinegar.  The acid in the buttermilk will neutralize it.


Beer replaces the yeast here.  Quick blini are not quite as luxurious as the classic kind, but the ease of preparation makes up for it.  Combine 1 cup beer with 1 cup milk for this recipe and skip the yeast.  Make sure the beer is warm.  You also need not let the batter rise.


Buckwheat flour has an incomparable chocolatey aroma and beautiful color.  Buckwheat blini go particularly well with seafood, especially when the seafood is combined with a delicate cream sauce.  The thing to keep in mind, though, is that buckwheat does not have gluten, and gluten is absolutely essential to making blini spongy, elastic and easy to fold. The greater the proportion of buckwheat flour, the more brittle the blini will be.  For optimal results, use about 1/2 to 3/4 cup buckwheat flour, but the rest should be ordinary all-purpose wheat flour.

Russian New Year Celebration: The Joy Of Caviar

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upload_-1-4Deep in the heart of Central Asia there is a vast body of water known as the Caspian Sea.  It is the world’s largest lake, within whose waters live strange-looking prehistoric fish that sometimes grow to the size of whales and whose eggs are rightly known as the king of foods and the food of kings.

No Russian New Year’s celebration would be complete without red and black caviar.


Russian New Year’s Eve: Miscellaneous Hors D’Oeuvres

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New Year’s Eve: Aspic (kholodets)

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Yummy, yummy, yummy!  holodec_polza_i_vredAspic is a very distinctive Russian dish, and I highly recommend it.


Russian New Year’s Eve: Salade Olivier

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olivierSalade Olivier a/k/a Russian salad a/k/a ensalada russa has a fascinating history.  It began as a dish invented by a Russo-Belgian chef , Lucien Olivier, for his upscale restaurant in Moscow in the mid-1800’s.  The story goes, one of Olivier’s commis simplified the original recipe for another restaurant where he obtained a better job (or stole and bastardized it, depending on who you ask), and the new, rapidly evolving version became increasingly popular among restaurant chefs and a staple of tavern menus.  The salad assumed the form familiar to us today — a macedoine of potatoes, bologna (or boiled beef), pickles, eggs, onion and carrots, bound in mayonnaise — sometime in the 1920’s.

Don’t tell me you hate mayonnaise, dear reader; this salad has conquered the globe, it’s that good. Virtually every European country has its own version of the Russian salad, plus Mongolia, plus parts of Latin America, plus parts of the Middle East (and not just Israel).  Definitely give it a try.


Russian New Year’s Eve

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snovymgodomThe New Year’s Eve is the most important holiday in Russian culture.  Introduced along with other reforms by Peter the Great in the 17th century (he also mandated Christmas trees, which we call “New Year’s firs”), meant to secularize and westernize Russian society, this celebration came to rival all others even before the Soviets essentially outlawed Christmas.  The meal served on New Year’s Eve, or rather, over the course of the entire night, is the most festive of the year.  (In fact, in Russian we call it New Year’s Night, because who the hell goes to bed at midnight?) Here is your brief culinary guide to a Russian-style New Year.


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